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Research Objects of Geology

The basic subjects of natural science are divided into 6 categories: mathematics, physics, chemistry, astronomy, geoscience and biology. Geology is an important part of geoscience (i.e., Earth Sciences).

Geology is a natural science which takes the earth as the research object.

The earth is composed of internal sphere and external sphere. The internal sphere forms the solid earth and can be divided into the crust, mantle and core of the earth; the external sphere includes the atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere. At present, due to limitation of observation and research conditions, geology mainly research the outermost layer of the solid earth, namely, the lithosphere (including the crust and top of the upper mantle). Geology also involves the hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere, deeper part below the lithosphere and some extraterrestrial materials.

The lithosphere is not only a part closely related to the human life and production, but also a part that is easy to be observed and has the longest research history. With the development of science and technology, such as the continuous application of satellite, aerospace and deep drilling technologies, marine geophysical prospecting, high temperature and high pressure experiments, electron microscope, computer, remote sensing and remote measuring, infrared photography, laser and other new technologies and new methods, the research scope of the geology also continuously expands. The deep geology appears through the development from the surface of the earth to the deep; oceanic geology appears through the development from the continent to the ocean; lunar geology, planetary geology and universal geology appear through the development from the earth to the outer space.

In addition to geology, geography, biology, meteorology, astronomy and other subjects are all related to the earth. The difference among them lies in the different focuses in researches. Geology focuses on the underground; geography focuses on the surface of the earth; biology studies the organic lives on the earth; meteorology studies the atmosphere of the earth; astronomy studies the earth and its origin from the celestial perspective.


Ministry of Land and Resources P.R. ChinaDepartment of Land and Resources of Hubei ProvincePeople’s Government of HuanggangHuanggang Municipal Bureau of Land and ResourcesGlobal Geoparks NetworkNational Geopark of China The Geological Museum of ChinaHong Kong UNESCO Global GeoparkShennongjia Global GeoparkTianzhushan Global Geopark




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